The Chiang Mai Chronicle / Summary

750 - 1300: Mon Era
Foundation of Hariphunchai (modern Lamphun). Mon Princess Jam Thewi, daughter of the king of Lop Buri (part of the extended Mon kingdom of Dvaravati), invited to rule. Foundation of Lampang as a branch city. Wars with Lop Buri (now a Khmer vassal).

Arrival of the Yuan Tai

Mangrai (b.1238 d.1317/18 )
  1. Khruang (b.1262/63 d.1275/76)
  2. Khram (b.1265/66 d.1327/28 )
  3. Khrua (b.1269/70 d.1326 )
alt. Khrua is Khram's son and Mangrai's grandson?

1259/60Upon his father's death, Mangrai ascends throne (25th of the royal lineage).
int.Mangrai conquers M. Mop, M. Lai, Chiang Kham, Chiang Chang. (Yonok domain)
1262/631st son Khruang is born. Mangrai founds Chiang Rai.
1265/662nd son Khram is born.
1269/70Mangrai conquers Chiang Khong. 3rd son Khrua is born.
(1272Mangrai moves his capital to Fang.)
1274/75Mangrai conquers M. Soeng. Mangrai secretly sends Ai Fa to King Yi Ba in Hariphunchai (Lamphun) to undermine his administration. Mangrai sends Khruang to Chiang Rai to reign, while he reigns in Fang.
1275/76Khruang (13 y.o.) in Chiang Rai revolts against Mangrai. Mangrai kills Kruang. Mangrai moves to Chiang Rai to reign.
int.Kaeo (Vietnamese) King visits Mangrai to perform coronation for him.
1276/77Mangrai sends troops to Phayao, but, instead, pledges friendship with King Ngam Muang of Payao.
int.King Ruang of Sukhothai has an affair with Ngam Muang's consort. Ngam Muang captures Ruang to punish him. Ngam Muang asks Mangrai to judge the matter. Mangrai has Ruang apologize to Ngam Muang, and pay indemnity of 990,000 cowries. Three kings swear eternal friendship. (alt. 1287?)
1281/82Ai Fa invites Mangrai to attack Hariphunchai. King Yi Ba of Hariphunchai escapes, taking refuge at his son's palace at Khelang (Lampang). Mangrai reigns in Hariphunchai.
1283/84Mangrai bestows Lamphun upon Ai Fa to reign, and moves to build a new city. Mangrai stays in Mae Saeo (northeast side of Lamphun).
1286/87Mangrai founds Wiang Kum Kam and moves in.
int.Mangrai brings troops to Hamsavati (Pegu) to attack. King of Hamsavati, in an attempt to reconcile, gives his daughter to Mangrai. Two kings pledge friendship.
1290/91Mangrai brings troops to Ava to attack. King of Ava, upon request of Mangrai, gives him bronzesmiths, goldsmiths, silversmiths, ironsmiths.
1291/92Mangrai searches around for a location of a new city, finds an auspicious location (Chiangmai). Mangrai builds a royal palace there.
int.Mangrai invites Ruang and Ngam Muang for consultation of building the new city.
1296Apr. Mangrai starts construction of the new city. Names the city as Nabbapuri Sri Nagara Chiang Mai.

Oct. Mangrai's spy in Lampang informs him that King Yi Ba and his son are planning an attack on Hariphunchai, Kum Kam and Chiang Mai. Mangrai gathers forces, and calls his son Khram in Chiang Rai to send forces. Yi Ba's forces are crushed. Mangrai makes Khram heir-presumptive, and gives him a new name Cao Phraya Cheyyasongkhram. Mangrai gives Chiang Dao as a gift to Cheyyasongkhram. Cheyyasongkhram constructs the city of Chiang Dao.
1311Mangrai falls ill, goes to Wiang Kum Kam to stay. Mangrai expels Khrua (in Phrao) to M. Nai (East Shan State) for seducing Cheyyasongkhram's wife.
1317/18Mangrai dies at the age of 80 in Chiang Mai.

Building Up of Lan Na

Cheyyasongkhram (=Khram) (b.1265/66 d.1327/28 )
  1. Saen Phu (b.1278/79 d.1336?)
  2. Nam Thuam (b.1293/94 d.)
  3. Ngua (b. d.)

1318Cheyyasongkhram remains in Chiang Mai for 4 months for Mangrai's funeral, then consecrates Saen Phu to rule in Chiang Mai and goes back to Chiang Rai. Cheyyasongkhram appoints Nam Thuam to rule M. Fang, and Ngua to rule Chiang Khong.
1319/20Khrua in M. Nai brings troops to Chiang Mai. Saen Phu avoids combat and runs away, first to Fang, then to Chiang Rai.
1321Cheyyasongkhram organizes an army, appoints Nam Thuam in Fang to lead the army and attack Chiang Mai.
1322Nam Thuam attacks Chiang Mai. Khrua is kept as prisoner, dies 4 years later. Cheyyasongkhram consecrates Nam Thuam to rule Chiang Mai.
1324/25Nam Thuam gets disloyal to Cheyyasongkhram. Cheyyasongkhram orders Ngua to take Nam Thuam away to M. Khem (Keng Tung), which he did. Cheyyasongkhram gives Saen Phu a second chance to rule in Chiang Mai.
1327/28Cheyyasongkhram dies in Chiang Rai.

Saen Phu (b.1278/79 d.1336?)
  1. Kham Fu (b.1303/04 d.1345/46)

1328/29Saen Phu appoints Kham Fu to take care of Chiang Mai, then goes to Chiang Rai to reign there.
1329Saen Phu constructs the city of Chiang Saen and reign there.
int.Saen Phu makes three auspicious drums and places them at Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Chiang Saen--three most important cities.
1336?Saen Phu dies.

Kham Fu (b.1303/04 d.1345/46)
  1. Phayu (b.1311/12 (p.66) or b.1317/18 (p.65) d.1367/68)
contradiction of birth date

1336?Kham Fu appoints Phayu to rule Chiang Mai, then goes to rule in Chiang Saen.
int.Kham Fu, together with the ruler of M. Nan, attacks and takes Phayao. Kham Fu doesn't share the plunder with Nan, and withdraws to Chiang Saen. The Nan ruler avenges by plundering Fang. Kham Fu sends troops to fight the Nan troops. After severe battle, the Nan troops withdraw.
1340/41Kham Fu leads army to take Phrae, but fails.
1345/46Kham Fu dies while visiting his merchant friend in Chiang Kham.

Phayu (b.1311/12 (p.66) or b.1317/18 (p.65) d.1367/68)
  1. Ku Na (b.1328/29 d.)
  2. Maha Phrom (b. d.)

1345/46Phayu is consecrated by councilors as ruler in Chiang Mai.
1367/68Phayu dies.

Golden Age of Lan Na

Ku Na (b1328/29. d.1388/89)
  1. Saen Muang Ma

1367/68Ku Na is consecrated by councilors as ruler in Chiang Mai.
1388/89Ku Na dies.

Saen Muang Ma (b.1387 d.)
  1. Yi Kum Kam
  2. Sam Fang Kaen (of a noble mother)

int.Maha Phrom in Chiang Rai tries to attack Chiang Mai to usurp the throne, but fails. He escapes to M. Ayotthiya under King Borommatraicak. Two months and 12 days later, Maha Phrom returns with Ayotthiya forces to capture Chiang Mai, but fails again.
1400Saen Muang Ma is consecrated by councilors as ruler in Chiang Mai.

Maha Phrom seduces the consort of King Borommatraicak who, in turn, dispels Maha Phrom back to the north. Saen Muang Ma allows Maha Phrom to return to Chiang Rai and reign there as before.
int.Saen Muang Ma attacks Sukhothai, but fails.
int.Saen Muang Ma sends Yi Kum Kam to rule Chiang Rai.
1425Saen Muang Ma dies, appointing Sam Fang Kaen as the next ruler.

Sam Fang Kaen
    1.Ai , 2.Yi , 3.Sam , 4. Sai , 5. Ngua , 6. Lok (= Tilok = Tilokarat) (b.1410/11 d.1487/88) , 7. Cet , 8. Paet , 9. Ao , 10. Sip (= Soi)

1401Sam Fang Kaen is consecrated by royal officers to rule in Chiang Mai.
int.Yi Kum Kam leads troops from Chiang Rai and attacks Chiang Mai, but fails, then takes refuge with King Sai Lu in M. Sukhothai. Sai Lu, together with Yi Kum Kam, leads troops from Sukhothai and attacks Chiang Mai, but fails, and escapes to Chiang Rai. Having an omen that Chiang Rai was inauspicious, Sai Lu takes Yi Kum Kam and all the people in Chiang Rai to Sukhothai. Yi Kum Kam is given a town near Sukhotia to rule.
int.Sam Fang Kaen sends Lok to rule M. Phrao. When Lok disobeys his father, Sam Fang Kaen sends Lok to Yuam Tai (Mae Sariang).
1442Sam Fang Kaen's official Sam Dek Yoi assists Lok to take Chiang Mai while Sam Fang Kaen is away. Sam Fang Kaen consents to give the throne to Lok. Lok sends Sam Fang Kaen to M. Sat.

Tilok (b.1410/11 d.1487/88)
  1. Si Bun Ruang (offended Tilok, thereby skipped in royal succession)
    1. Yot (b.1456/57 d.)
alt. Yot is Tilok's nephew?

1442Sam Dek Yoi occupies the Golden Palace of King Tilok. Tilok asks his uncle Mun Lok of Nakhon to retake the Palace. Mun Lok retakes the Palace and captures Sam Dek Yoi. Tilok doesn't want to kill Sam Dek Yoi, and sends him to rule Chiang Saen. Invited by Tilok, Mun Lok moves to live in Chiang Mai, leaving Nakhon under the rule of his son Mun Ku Han Tae Thong.

Mun Lok proposes Tilok to capture the former king Sam Fang Kaen. Soi invites Sam Fang Kaen in Fang. Mun Lok attacks Fang. Soi escapes. Sam Fang Kaen is captured and sent to Chiang Mai. Tilok keeps Sam Fang Kaen in the Golden Palace.

King Borommaracha of Ayudhya brings troops to attack Chiang Mai, but fails.
1443King Kaen Thao, the ruler of Nan, revolts against Tilok and kills Mun Phaeng of Phayao.

Tilok leads troops to attack Nan. On his way, he subdues Phrae and takes it under suzerainty.
1448/49Tilok finally takes Nan. King Kaen Thao flees to Ayudhya. Tilok places Kaen Thao's younger brother Kha Kan on the throne in Nan.
1449Tilok returns to Chiang Mai. The King of Chawa (Luang Prabang) attacks Nan, but Tilok sends troops and dispels them.
1451King Yutthisathiang of Song Khwae (Phitsanulok) has conflict with Ayudhya and submits to be a vassal of Tilok. Tilok welcomes him and places him in Phayao.
1457King Borommaracha of Ayudhya, together with his son Intharacha, leads troops to take Chiang Mai, but fails.
1460While king of Ayudhya and his son are staying in Song Khwae, Tilok leads troops and attack them, but they manage to escape.
1461King Borommaracha of Ayudhya leads troops to attack Phrae, but Tilok counterattacks and Borommaracha withdraws. Tilok takes Chaliang (Satchanalai) as a vassal and places Mun Dong as the governor of Chaliang.
1462Tilok leads troops to conquer eleven Shan domains.
1465King Borommaracha of Ayudhya sends a Burmese Ascetic to Chiang Mai, whose role is to get rid of glorious banyan trees in Chiang Mai to undermine Tilok's strength. The ascetic succeeds in winning Tilok's favor, and , by deception, advises him to cut down all the banyan trees, raze the city wall which King Mangrai built, and to fill the moat and level it. Later his deception is discovered, and the ascetic is killed.
1480Vietnamese troops attacks M. Chawa (Luang Prabang) and proceeds towards Nan. Kha Kan fights back. Tilok sends troops to assist Kha Kan. The Vietnamese flee. Tilok transfers Kha Kan to rule Chiang Rai.

Tilok sends Vietnamese captives to Cao Lum Fa of Ho of China. Cao Lum Fa recognizes Tilok as the ruler of the West. Tilok sends tribute to Cao Lum Fa.
1486/87Tilok's officials revolt against him, but subdued.
1487/88Tilok dies at the age of 78.

Yot (b.1456/57 d.)
  1. Rattana (= Phutadhipatiraja = Kaeo) (b.1483 d.1526)
  2. Ket ()
  3. Salang (by Ho mother, Yot's favorite)
alt. Ket is a maternal cousin of Kaeo?

1487/88Yot assumes reign after Tilok dies.
1495Yot (40) is deposed by dissatisfied officials and exiled to M. Samat, dies 10 years later.

Kaeo (b.1483 d.1526)
    (had no children)

1495Kaeo (14) is crowned by officials.
1507/08Kaeo leads troops to attack Sukhothai, but fails.
1510-15Intermittent warfare with Sukhothai.
1515Ket is throned in M. Noi.
1516-18Kaeo reconstructs the city walls of Chiang Mai.
1526Kaeo (44) dies.

Internal Conflict / Age of Decline

Ket (b.1497/98 d.)
  1. Thao Chai (b. d.1543/44)
  2. Chiraprapha (daughter)
  3. Thip (daughter, married to King of Lan Chang)

1526/27Officers choose Ket (30) to succeeds throne in Chiang Mai.
1535 Group of 3 conspires against Ket. Ket finds out and kills conspirators.
Group of 3
1. Mun Sam Lan - ruler of Nakhon
2. Mun Luang Chan Nok - son of Mun Sam lan
3. Mun Yi Ai
1538Ket's officers depose him and send him into exile.
Thao Chai (b. d.1543/44)

1538/39Thao Chai is named by officers to reign.
1543/44Thao Chai's officers kill him, and recall Ket to reign.
1543/44Ket is recalled by officers to reign for the second time.
1545/46 Group of 4 assassinates Ket.
Saen Khrao invites the ruler of Khemarattha to reign in Chiangmai, but he declines.
Then, Saen Khrao invites the ruler of M. Nai to reign in Chiangmai. Meanwhile, Group of 5 invites the king of Lan Chang to rule Chiang Mai.
Group of 4
1. Sam Khrao
2. Mun Troen - son of Pho Thao Chiang Khong
3. son of Mun Ai
4. son of Saen Khrao

Group of 5
1. Mun Sam Lan Ai - the ruler of Nakhon
2. Mun Kaeo - the ruler of Chiang Rai
3. Mun Mano - the ruler of Chiang Saen
4. Mun Yi - the ruler of Phran
5. Mun Nangsu Luang

Mun Hua Khian of Saen Wi (Burma) leads army to attack Saen Khrao. Saen Khrao fights back and Mun Hua Khian flees to Lamphun where he contacts Ayudhyan forces.

Group of 5 kills members of Group of 4, and raises Queen Chiraprapha as the interim ruler of Chiang Mai.

Borommatraicak leads his army to Chiang Mai. Queen Chiraprapha sends gifts to him. Borommatraicak donates 5,000 units of silver to build a funerary monument for the late-king Ket and withdraws to Ayudhya.

Fa Yong Hui of M. Nai leads troops to invade Chiang Mai, but Chiang Mai people fight back, and he withdraws.

Phraya Klang and Phraya Sura (of Lan Chang) come to Chiang Mai to take charge of the country.

Borommatraicak orders Mun Sukhothai to attack Chiang Mai. Heavy battle.
1546/47King Uppayo of Lan Chang arrives in Chiang Mai with his wife Thip (daughter of Ket), welcomed by the Group of 5 and enthroned as the ruler of Chiang Mai.
1547Uppayo returns to Lan Chang (His father died in Lan Chang and riots outbroke).
1548Split of the Group of 5. Mun Yi (Sutthasana) tries to depose Saen Phing Chai Kaeo, but fails and flees to Lampang.
1551The ruler of Phrae comes to Chiang Mai with Phraya Nakhon and Phraya Hua Wiang (from lan Chang) to rule. They stay 2 months and 25 days, then expelled back to Phrae.
1551King Uppayo formally abdicates, naming the queen Thip to reign instead.

Mae Ku
Mae Ku, descendant of Khrua (son of Mangrai), in M. Nai.

1551Ministers invite Mae Ku to come to Chiang Mai to rule.
1557/58King Min Taya of Pegu advances, demanding Mae Ku to come and meet him at Salween River. Mae Ku evades his invitation, sending officials instead. Min Taya takes Chiang Mai. Min Taya stays in Chiang Mai for 1 month and 12 days. Min Taya allows Mae Ku to rule Lan Na as before, but leaves a Burmese commissioner, a deputy commissioner and 10,000 troops to stay in Chiang Mai.
1564/65Mae Ku rebels against Min Taya. Min Taya brings an army and retakes Chiang Mai. Min Taya brings back Mae Ku to Pegu, leaving Lady Wisutthathewi to rule in his place.Wisutthathewi may be a daughter of Ket and a queen of Min Taya (p127).
1568/69Min Taya sacks Ayutthiya.
1578/79 Lady Wisutthithewi dies. Min Taya sends his son Tharrawady Noratha Min Khoi to rule in Chiang Mai.
Tharrawady Noratha Min Khoi may be Wisutthithewi's son, thereby Mangrai's descendant.

1558 - 1775: Burmese Occupation, Fragmentation, Turmoil

1.Thado Khoi
3.Thado Gyaw
In 1595, the king of Lan Sang joined with Nan in attempting to expel the Burmese, but failed. The time for action, however, had come. Naresuan in the mid-1590s was raiding the Pegu region almost annually, and king Nandabayin of Burma also faced internal rebellion and challenges from neighboring Arakan and some Portuguese adventurers by 1599. on the death of Nandabayin in that year, Burma virtually fell apart. The Burmese Tharrawaddy prince was ruling in Chiang Mai, but had no chance of help from home. Thus, when Lan Sang invaded his dominions and seized Chiang Saen, he had no choice but to appeal to Siam for assistance, offering to place Lan Na under the suzerainty of King Naresuan. Naresuan was only too happy to respond and sent north an army which recaptured Chiang Saen and installed a Lao noble as a sort of Siamese commissioner there. He did not attempt to impose any stronger influence over Chiang Mai, however... This anomalous situation--a Burmese prince ruling in Lan Na under Siam's suzerainty--lasted for more than a decade, until the Burmese under King Anaukpetlun determined to reassert their direct control in the region. (Thailand: A Short History, p118)
1607/08Tharrawaddy Noratha Min Khoi dies. (reign: 28 years) His son Thado Khoi rules.
1608/09Thado Khoi dies. (reign: 1 year 1 month) Son #2 rules.
1613/14Son #2 dies. (reign 5 years). Son #3 (Thado Gyaw) rules.
Anaukpetlun neatly detached Chiang Saen by installing his own man as governor there and then, in 1614, invaded Chiang Mai. Thadogyaw fled to Lampang, fortified the city, and there made his stand. The Burmese siege of the city was faltering when they received timely aid from Prince Si Song Muang, a descendant of the ruling house of Nan whom the Burmese had installed as ruler in 1603. When lampang fell and Thadogyaw died, the Burmese made Si Song Muang the ruler of Chiang Mai-but not ruler of Lan Na, which now was divided among many. (Thailand: A Short History, p119)
(1628Burma relocates the center of administration of Lan Na to Chiang Saen which made control easier.)
1631Si Song Muang declares his independence of Burma and seizes Chiang Saen. The Burmese captures Si Song Muang, sends him into exile in Pegu, and installs a governor (not a ruler) Phraya Thipphanet.
int.Succession of governors sent from Burma.
1727/28Thephasing in M. Yuam (Mae Sariang) stages rebellion and captures Chiang Mai. Ong Nok, of the lineage of Lan Chang, assists Min Rae Nara (Chiang Mai governor) in recapturing Chiang Mai. Local Burmese invite Ong Nok (now Ong Kham) to rule Chiang Mai.
1729Burmese try to retake Chiang Mai. Ong Kham fights back and expels them.
1759 Ong Kham dies. (rule: 32 years) His son Cao Can succeeds.
1761Cao Can's brother Cao Pat rebels against Cao Can and takes Chiang Mai, inviting the monk Cao Khi Hut to leave the monkhood and rule the principality.
1762/63Burmese Generalissimo Abhayagamani takes Chiang Mai, relocates almost all the population to Ava, and rules in Chiang Mai.
1765/66Phra Muang Chai of Lamphun rebels against General Abhayagamani. Abhayagamani escapes to Ava, together with Chai Kaeo of Lampang. King of Ava sends an army of 100,000 and retakes Chiang Mai. Abhayagamani returns to rule in Chiang Mai. Chai Kaeo follows.Chai Kaeo is the son of Thipphacak who has been enthroned in Lampang for his feat in expelling Lamphun forces from Lampang. Burmese King accepted Thipphacak.
1767Sack of Ayutthiya.
1768/69Abhayagamani dies. Prince Nemyo Khamani is sent to replace him in Chiang Mai. Chai Kaeo serves under him, while his son Kawila, together with his brothers, rules Lampang.
int.Ca Ban Bunma rebels against Nemyo Khamani, but fails. He makes an alliance with Kawila.
int.Kawila kills Burmese officers in Lampang. Chai Kaeo is imprisoned in Chiang Mai. While Kawila's brothers send a letter of apology to Nemyo Khamani, Kawila dispatches a letter to Taksin, asking for help.
1775Taksin's forces attack Chiang Mai. Nemyo Khamani flees. Kawila rescues Chai Kaeo from the prison. Taksin names Ca Ban as the ruler of Chiang Mai, and Kawila as the ruler of Lampang.
1778/79Taksin orders Cakri and Surasi to attack Vientiane.
1779/80On their way back from Vientiane, Cakri and Surasi send a force of 300 men as royal commissioners to inspect all the provinces of Phrae, Nan and Lampang. The commissioners behaved badly and Kawila kills many of them. Taksin captures Ca Ban and Kawila. Kawila offers to attack Chiang Saen, and Taksin lets him go. Ca Ban falls ill and dies.
1781/82Taksin is deposed. Cakri ascends throne.

Kawila pays visit to Cakri and Surasi. Cakri appoints Kawila as the ruler of Chiang Mai.

-- This Chiang Mai Chronicle ends at 1827/28, during the reign of Phaya Puttawong --

Thipphacak (= Sulva Lu Chai = Chaiyasongkhram) (b. d.)
  1. Nai Ai Ratchakuman
  2. Kaeo (b. r. d.)
    1. Cao Khanan Kawila (b.1742/43 r1.1782 d.1816)
      1. Phra Jao Kawiloros Suriyawong (b. r6.1856 d.1870)
    2. Cao Kham Som (b.1744/45
    3. Cao Noi Thammalangka (b.1746/47 r2.1816(70) d.1822(77))
      1. Phra Jao Maho Tara Pratas (b. r5.1847 d.1854)
    4. Cao Duang Thip (b.1748/49
    5. Sri Anocha (f) (b.1750/51
    6. Lady Sri Wanna (f) (b.1752/53 died early)
    7. Cao Mu La (b.1754/55
    8. Cao Kham Fan (b.1756/57 r3.1823 d.1825)
      1. Phra Jao In Tawichayanon (b. r7.1873 d.1896)
        1. Jao In Tawaroros Suriyawong (b.1859 r8.1901 d.1909)
        2. Jao Kaew Nawarat (b. r9.1911 d.1939)
    9. Sri Bun Than (f) (b.1758/59 died early)
    10. Cao Bun Ma (b.1760/61
  3. Lady Kham
    1. Nai Khattiya
    2. Nai Kham Son
  4. Kham Pha
    1. Nai Nanthasen
    2. Nai Cumpa
    3. Nai Kon Kaeo
  5. Nai Pho Ruan
    1. Nai Wongsa
    2. Nai Phutthawongsa (b. r4.1826 d.1846)
    3. Nai Kham Mun
    4. Nai Noi Kawila
    5. Nai Kham Lu
    6. Lady Santha
  6. Lady Kom
    1. Nai Cantharacha
    2. Lady Ta Dam

The 1782 Appointment by Cakri Brothers
  1. Cao Khanan Kawila (40) / Ruler of Chiang Mai
  2. Cao Kham Som (38) / Ruler of Lakhon Lampang
  3. Cao Noi Thammalangka (36) / Uparaja of Chiang Mai
  4. Cao Duang Thip (34) / Uparaja (of Lakhon?)
  5. Cao Mu La (27) / Ratchawong of Lakhon
  6. Cao Kham Fan
  7. Cao Bun Ma

Quote: Chao Luang Chiang Mai
Phra Jao Kawila
r.1782 - 1813
King Kawila, the first child of Prince Chai Kaeo and Princess Chanthathewi of Lampang, succeeded in defeating the invading Burmese when he was 40 years old. He was appointed Phraya Mangrao Wachira Phakan Kamphaeng Kaeo, the ruler of Chiang Mai, by King Rama I. He mustered forces from 300 to 700 strong and established his stronghold at Wiang Pa Sang (presently Pa Sang District of Lmphun), from where gathered the people from many cities to come and live in Chiang Mai. King Kawila began to restore Chiang Mai which had been left deserted for 20 years. Later King Rama I promoted King Kawila as 'the King of Chiang Mai' governing 57 regional towns. Due to his long hard struggles amidst the many wars, King Kawila finally passed away at the age of 74. He had ruled Chiang Mai for 32 years.
Phaya Tamma Langka
r.1815 - 1821
Phraya Thammalangka, the third child of Prince Chai Kaeo and Princess Chanthathewi, served as King Kawila's assistan and was appointed Crown Prince of Chiang Mai. Following the death of King Kawila, he ws appointed King of Chiang Mai at the age of 70 and attached great importance to religious affairs and renovation of Chiang Mai.
Phaya Kam Fun
r.1823 - 1825
The eighth child and the sixth son of Prince Chai Kaeo and Princess Chanthathewi, Chao Luang Setthi Kham Fan served as assistant to the two previous kings. He also played a vital role in protecting the city from Burmese invasion and turning deserted Lamphun into a prosperous city once again. He was crowned King when he was 67 years old, and ruled the city for only two years before he died. He had 20 sons and 24 daughters.
Phaya Puttawong
r.1826 - 1846
Commonly referred to as 'Chao Luang Phaen Din Yen', King of the Peaceful Land, Chao Luang Buddhawong ruled Chiang Mai for 21 peaceful years and during his reign, Chiang Mai was not engaged in any war as the Burmese at that time had turned to fight against the British. Chao Luang Buddhawong was the first child of Nai Pho Ruan, who was Prince Chai Kaeo's brother. He joined King Kawila's army and was known to have developed Chiang Mai with a new administrative order based on intellect rather than strength. Chiang Mai then became peaceful once again and made contacts with other nationalities such as the British.
Phra Jao Maho Tara Pratas
r.1847 - 1854
Originlly called Chao Thanan Mahawong, Phra Chao Mahotara Prathet was the the second son of Phraya Thammalangka, the second monarch of Chiang Mai and Mae Chao Chanfong. He served as Crown Prince during the reign of Chao Luang 'Buddhawong' and fought fiercely with the Burmese. After he was crowned, he began to expand Chiang Mai's territory and took over the administration of Lampang and Lamphun. He was promoted in the reign of King Mongkut (Rama IV), and ruled Chiang Mai for some seven years.
Phra Jao Kawiloros Suriyawong
r.1856 - 1870
Commonly referred to as Chao Nao Suriwong, Phra Chao Kawilorotsuriyawong was Chao Kawila's fifth son and ruled Chiang Mai when the city had merged with the Thai Kingdom. He was called 'Chao Chiwit Ao' and known as a strict authoritarian. If he said 'Ao' while considering a law case, the accused must be 'executed'. This might be considered brutal but it brought peace and security to the city as the ruler was decisive. He also had a strong faith in Buddhism. Phra Chao Kawilorotsuriyawong had served as Chao Luang of Chiang Mai at the age of 70 and attached great importance to religious affairs and renovation of Chiang Mai for 16 years before he died at the age of 71.
Phra Jao In Tawichayanon
r.1873 - 1896
Following the death of Phra Chao Kawilorotsuriyawong, King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) appointed Crown Prince Intanon as Governor of Chiang Mai, named Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon. On November 19, 1886, Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon together with his daughter 'Chao Dara Rassami' had an audiance with King Chulalongkorn. Chao Dara Rassami, then 13 years old, was accepted at the royal court and became a consort. In 1908, she was elevated royal status to chat of 'Queen'. Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon introduced modern education and set up a school for girls called 'Dara Witthayalai' and a school for boys called 'Wang Singkham' in 1888. The school for boys was later changed to Prince Royal School, as generally known today. Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon passed away in 1897 after ruling Chiang Mai for 27 years.
Jao In Tawaroros Suriyawong
r.1901 - 1909
Originally called Chao Noi Suriyawongmekha, Chao Inthawarorot Suriyawong was the son of Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon and Mae Chao Rinkham. During this period, Chiang Mai developed closer ties with Bangkok through Queen Dara Rassami and adopted musical and performing arts from Bangkok. Chao Inthawarorot Suriyawong had close contact with his people and adopted a paternalistic and benevolent style of kingship. Such a system brought prosperity and progress in all fields to Chiang Mai. Electricity was first first introduced into his residence for the first time in Chiang Mai. Duking the reign of Chao Inthawarorot Suriyawong, Chiang Mai was no longer a conony of Bangkok and Chao Inthawarorot Suriyawong served as a government official and received his salary from Bangkok, although he hardly had direct power in administering Chiang Mai. Chao Inthawarorot Suriyawong passed away in 1909, having served as Chiang Mai ruler for four years and governor for eight years.
Major General Jao Kaew Nawarat
r. 1911 - 1939
The last Chao Luang of Chiang Mai, Major-Gerneral Chao Kaeo Nawarat was the sixth or of Phra Chao Inthawitchayanon and Mae Chao Khieo. He served in government service when he was 15 years old. His name has been adopted as the title for several public structures such as Nawarat Bridge, Nawarat Club, Kaeo Nawarat Road, Si Nawarat Temple and Si Nawarat School.
In 1911, Chao Kaeo Nawarat was elevated to royal status as Chiang Mai Ruler and King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) granted the surname of 'Na Chiang Mai' to Major-Gerneral Chao Kaeo Nawarat and his family from the line of 'Chao Chet Ton'.
He passed away in 1939 at the age 77. After his death, the Tahi Government dissolved the post of ruler, putting and end to 'Chao Luang Chiang Mai.

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